Alchemical And Later Discoveries And Uses Of Alum (Mineral)

Discovered and alchemical and posterior uses the presence of potassium the sulphuric alum acid was known to the alchemists. J.H. Pott and A.S. Marggraf showed that alumina was another constituent. Pott in its Lithogeognosia proved that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is versed in an alum solution is completely different from lime and chalk, with which it had been confused by G.E. Stahl. Marggraf proved that alumina is one of the components of alum, but that this groun…

Discovered and alchemical and posterior uses the presence of potassium the sulphuric alum acid was known to the alchemists. J.H. Pott and A.S. Marggraf showed that alumina was another constituent. Pott in its Lithogeognosia proved that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is versed in an alum solution is completely different from lime and chalk, with which it had been confused by G.E. Stahl. Marggraf proved that alumina is one of the components of alum, but that this ground has the particular properties, and is one of the clay commun run ingredients.

It also proved that crystals of alum cannot be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulphuric acid and evaporating the solutions, but when an ammonia or potash solution is released in this liquid, it immediately deposits the perfect crystals of alum. Torbern Bergman also observed that the addition of potash or made ammonia the solution of alumina in sulphuric acid crystallizes, but that the same effect was not produced by the addition of soda or lime, and that potassium sulphate is frequently found out of alum.

Short-term uses in industry the alum was imported in England mainly of the Middle East, and, as from late the 15th century, the papal states for hundreds of years. Its use there was as a dye-fixer (corrosive) for the wool (which was one of primary industries of England), the value of which appreciably increased if dyed. These sources were dubious, however, and there was a push to develop a source in England. With the financing of state, attempts were made throughout the 16th century, but without success until as of the access inside at the 17th century. An industry was founded in Yorkshire to treat the schist which contained the principal ingredient, sulphates aluminium, and contributed an important share to the industrial revolution. The alum (known under the name of turti in local Indian languages) was also employed for the treatment water by Indians for hundreds of years.

After M.H. Klaproth discovered the presence of potassium in leucite and lepidolite, it occurred with L.N. Vauquelin that it was probably an of the same ingredient in much of other ores. Knowing that the alum cannot be obtained out of crystals without addition of potash, it started with suspecter that this alkali constituted an essential ingredient in salt, and in 1797 it published an essay showing that the alum is a double salt, composed of sulphuric acid, alumina, and potash.

A little later J.A. Chaptal published the analysis of four kinds different of alum, namely, Roman alum, alum of Raising, British alum and alum built all alone. This analysis led to the same result as Vauquelin.

Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 87 )

Closely connected with these ideas is the doctrine — which was universal before the Europeans mutilated it — the doctrine of reincarnation. Some of you may have heard of and ignored it. This idea of reincarnation runs parallel with the other doctrine of the eternity of the human soul. Nothing which ends at one point can be without a beginning and nothing that begins at one point can be without an end. We cannot believe in such a monstrous impossibility as the beginning of t…

Closely connected with these ideas is the doctrine — which was universal before the Europeans mutilated it — the doctrine of reincarnation. Some of you may have heard of and ignored it. This idea of reincarnation runs parallel with the other doctrine of the eternity of the human soul. Nothing which ends at one point can be without a beginning and nothing that begins at one point can be without an end. We cannot believe in such a monstrous impossibility as the beginning of the human soul. The doctrine of reincarnation asserts the freedom of the soul. Suppose there was an absolute beginning.

Then the whole burden of this impurity in man falls upon God. The all- merciful Father responsible for the sins of the world! If sin comes in this way, why should one suffer more than another? Why such partiality, if it comes from an all-merciful God? Why are millions trampled underfoot? Why do people starve who never did anything to cause it? Who is responsible? If they had no hand in it, surely, God would be responsible. Therefore the better explanation is that one is responsible for the miseries one suffers. If I set the wheel in motion, I am responsible for the result. And if I can bring misery,I can also stop it. It necessarily follows that we are free. There is no such thing as fate. There is nothing to compel us. What we have done, that we can undo.

To one argument in connection with this doctrine I will ask your patient attention, as it is a little intricate. We gain all our knowledge through experience; that is the only way.What we call experiences are on the plane of consciousness. For illustration: A man plays a tune on a piano, he places each finger on each key consciously. He repeats this process till the movement of the fingers becomes a habit. He then plays a tune without having to pay special attention to each particular key.

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Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 80 )

Absolute equality, that which means a perfect balance of all the struggling forces in all the planes, can never be in this world. Before you attain that state, the world will have become quite unfit for any kind of life, and no one will be there. We find, therefore, that all these ideas of the millennium and of absolute equality are not only impossible but also that, if we try to carry them out, they will lead us surely enough to the day of destruction. What makes the differe…

Absolute equality, that which means a perfect balance of all the struggling forces in all the planes, can never be in this world. Before you attain that state, the world will have become quite unfit for any kind of life, and no one will be there. We find, therefore, that all these ideas of the millennium and of absolute equality are not only impossible but also that, if we try to carry them out, they will lead us surely enough to the day of destruction. What makes the difference between man and man? It is largely the difference in the brain. Nowadays no one but a lunatic will say that we are all born with the same brain power. We come into the world with unequal endowments; we come as greater men or as lesser men, and there is no getting away from that prenatally determined condition.

The American Indians were in this country for thousands of years, and a few handfuls of your ancestors came to their land. What difference they have caused in the appearance of the country! Why did not the Indians make improvements and build cities, if all were equal? With your ancestors a different sort of brain power came into the land,different bundles of past impressions came,and they worked out and manifested themselves. Absolute non – differentiation is death. So long as this world lasts,differentiation there will and must be,and the millennium of perfect equality will come only when a cycle of creation comes to its end. Before that, equality cannot be.

Yet this idea of realizing the millennium is a great motive power. Just as inequality is necessary for creation itself, so the struggle to limit it is also necessary.If there were no struggle to become free and get back to God,there would be no creation either. It is the difference between these two forces that determines the nature of the motives of men. There will always be these motives to work, some tending towards bondage and others towards freedom.

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Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 67 )

What does it say? “Work incessantly, but give up all attachment to work.” Do not identify yourself with anything. Hold your mind free. All this that you see, the pains and the miseries, are but the necessary conditions of this world; poverty and wealth and happiness are but momentary; they do not belong to our real nature at all. Our nature is far beyond misery and happiness, beyond every object of the senses, beyond the imagination;and yet we must go on working all the time….

What does it say? “Work incessantly, but give up all attachment to work.” Do not identify yourself with anything. Hold your mind free. All this that you see, the pains and the miseries, are but the necessary conditions of this world; poverty and wealth and happiness are but momentary; they do not belong to our real nature at all. Our nature is far beyond misery and happiness, beyond every object of the senses, beyond the imagination;and yet we must go on working all the time. “Misery comes through attachment, not through work.”

As soon as we identify ourselves with the work we do, we feel miserable; but if we do not identify ourselves with it, we do not feel that misery. If a beautiful picture belonging to another is burnt, a man does not generally become miserable; but when his own picture is burnt, how miserable he feels! Why? Both were beautiful pictures, perhaps copies of the same original; but in one case very much more misery is felt than in the other. It is because in one case he identifies himself with the picture, and not in the other. This “I and mine” causes the whole misery. With the sense of possession comes selfishness, and selfishness brings on misery. Every act of selfishness or thought of selfishness makes us attached to something, and immediately we are made slaves.

Each wave in the Chitta that says “I and mine” immediately puts a chain round us and makes us slaves; and the more we say “I and mine”, the more slavery grows, the more misery increases. Therefore Karma-Yoga tells us to enjoy the beauty of all the pictures in the world, but not to identify ourselves with any of them. Never say “mine”. Whenever we say a thing is “mine”, misery will immediately come. Do not even say “my child” in your mind. Possess the child, but do not say “mine”. If you do, then will come the misery.Do not say “my house,” do not say “my body”. The whole difficulty is there.The body is neither yours, nor mine, nor anybody’s. These bodies are coming and going by the laws of nature, but we are free,standing as witness. This body is no more free than a picture or a wall. Why should we be attached so much to a body? If somebody paints a picture, he does it and passes on. Do not project that tentacle of selfishness, “I must possess it”. As soon as that is projected, misery will begin.

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Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 59 )

Thus the man that has practised control over himself cannot be acted upon by anything outside; there is no more slavery for him. His mind has become free. Such a man alone is fit to live well in the world. We generally find men holding two opinions regarding the world. Some are pessimists and say, “How horrible this world is, how wicked!” Some others are optimists and say, “How beautiful this world is, how wonderful!” To those who have not controlled their own minds, the worl…

Thus the man that has practised control over himself cannot be acted upon by anything outside; there is no more slavery for him. His mind has become free. Such a man alone is fit to live well in the world. We generally find men holding two opinions regarding the world. Some are pessimists and say, “How horrible this world is, how wicked!” Some others are optimists and say, “How beautiful this world is, how wonderful!” To those who have not controlled their own minds, the world is either full of evil or at best a mixture of good and evil. This very world will become to us an optimistic world when we become masters of our own minds. Nothing will then work upon us as good or evil; we shall find everything to be in its proper place, to be harmonious.

Some men, who begin by saying that the world is a hell, often end by saying that it is a heaven when they succeed in the practice of self – control. If we are genuine Karma-Yogis and wish to train ourselves to that attainment of this state, wherever we may begin we are sure to end in perfect self – abnegation; and as soon as this seeming self has gone, the whole world, which at first appears to us to be filled with evil, will appear to be heaven itself and full of blessedness. Its very atmosphere will be blessed; every human face there will be god. Such is the end and aim of Karma – yoga, and such is its perfection in practical life.

Our various Yogas do not conflict with each other; each of them leads us to the same goal and makes us perfect. Only each has to be strenuously practised. The whole secret is in practising. First you have to hear, then think, and then practise. This is true of every Yoga.

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Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 58 )

There was a great sage in India called Vyasa. This Vyasa is known as the author of the Vedanta aphorisms,and was a holy man. His father had tried to become a very perfect man and had failed. His grandfather had also tried and failed. His great – grandfather had similarly tried and failed. He himself did not succeed perfectly, but his son, Shuka, was born perfect. Vyasa taught his son wisdom; and after teaching him the knowledge of truth himself, he sent him to the court of Ki…

There was a great sage in India called Vyasa. This Vyasa is known as the author of the Vedanta aphorisms,and was a holy man. His father had tried to become a very perfect man and had failed. His grandfather had also tried and failed. His great – grandfather had similarly tried and failed. He himself did not succeed perfectly, but his son, Shuka, was born perfect. Vyasa taught his son wisdom; and after teaching him the knowledge of truth himself, he sent him to the court of King Janaka. He was a great king and was called Janaka Videha.Videha means “without a body”. Although a king, he had entirely forgotten that he was a body; he felt that he was a spirit all the time. This boy Shuka was sent to be taught by him. The king knew that Vyasa’s son was coming to him to learn wisdom: so he made certain arrangements beforehand. And when the boy presented himself at the gates of the palace, the guards took no notice of him whatsoever. They only gave him a seat,and he sat there for three days and nights, nobody speaking to him,nobody asking him who he was or whence he was. He was the son of a very great sage, his father was honoured by the whole country, and he himself was a most respectable person; yet the low, vulgar guards of the palace would take no notice of him.

After that, suddenly, the ministers of the king and all the big officials came there and received him with the greatest honours. They conducted him in and showed him into splendid rooms, gave him the most fragrant baths and wonderful dresses, and for eight days they kept him there in all kinds of luxury. That solemnly serene face of Shuka did not change even to the smallest extent by the change in the treatment accorded to him; he was the same in the midst of this luxury as when waiting at the door. Then he was brought before the king. The king was on his throne, music was playing, and dancing and other amusements were going on. The king then gave him a cup of milk, full to the brim,and asked him to go seven times round the hall without spilling even a drop. The boy took the cup and proceeded in the midst of the music and the attraction of the beautiful faces. As desired by the king,seven times did he go round, and not a drop of the milk was spilt. The boy’s mind could not be attracted by anything in the world, unless he allowed it to affect him. And when he brought the cup to the king, the king said to him, “What your father has taught you, and what you have learned yourself, I can only repeat. You have known the Truth; go home.”

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Age New Spirituality – Inspirational Stories ( Part 53 )

Here are two Sanskrit words. The one is Pravritti, which means revolving towards, and the other is Nivritti, which means revolving away. The “revolving towards” is what we call the world, the “I and mine”; it includes all those things which are always enriching that “me” by wealth and money and power, and name and fame, and which are of a grasping nature, always tending to accumulate everything in one centre, that centre being “myself”. That is the Pravritti,the natural tende…

Here are two Sanskrit words. The one is Pravritti, which means revolving towards, and the other is Nivritti, which means revolving away. The “revolving towards” is what we call the world, the “I and mine”; it includes all those things which are always enriching that “me” by wealth and money and power, and name and fame, and which are of a grasping nature, always tending to accumulate everything in one centre, that centre being “myself”. That is the Pravritti,the natural tendency of every human being; taking everything from everywhere and heaping it around one centre, that centre being man’s own sweet self. When this tendency begins to break, when it is Nivritti or “going away from,” then begin morality and religion. Both Pravritti and Nivritti are of the nature of work: the former is evil work, and the latter is good work. This Nivritti is the fundamental basis of all morality and all religion, and the very perfection of it is entire self – abnegation, readiness to sacrifice mind and body and everything for another being.

When a man has reached that state, he has attained to the perfection of Karma – yoga. This is the highest result of good works. Although a man has not studied a single system of philosophy, although he does not believe in any God, and never has believed, although he has not prayed even once in his whole life, if the simple power of good actions has brought him to that state where he is ready to give up his life and all else for others, he has arrived at the same point to which the religious man will come through his prayers and the philosopher through his knowledge; and so you may find that the philosopher,the worker, and the devotee, all meet at one point, that one point being self – abnegation.

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Adding Personal Touches to Your Wedding

A perfect wedding isn뭪 only beautiful, it뭩 personal. It뭩 got carefully selected details that are meaningful to you and your fianc? Here are some very simple ways to add your own subtle, unique touches to your ceremony and reception:

A perfect wedding isn뭪 only beautiful, it뭩 personal. It뭩 got carefully selected details that are meaningful to you and your fianc? Here are some very simple ways to add your own subtle, unique touches to your ceremony and reception:

뷭rite your own wedding vows. It doesn뭪 have to read like poetry; the important thing is that it comes from your own heart. Print it out on an index card and keep it handy during the ceremony.
뷖ompile a CD with songs that symbolize your relationship or how it evolved. Play this during your reception or even burn a copy and distribute as souvenirs. Insert a small piece of paper explaining why you chose those songs.
뷞nstead of tossing your bouquet, present it to your mother (or a dear friend or mentor) during your reception. You can also have an additional bouquet made for your groom to present his mother at the same time.
뷛uests often have free time on their hands during their reception. In the center of the table, place several pens and small pieces of paper in a pretty basket. Ask them to write their wishes, prayers, or advice for you and your fianc? Compile in a scrapbook.
뷢ost wedding reception programs revolve around the couple: friends give speeches. Do something for the guests. Make a video of you and your fianc?talking about the people who뭭e taught you what true love means. Mention friends who뭭e demonstrated real loyalty, or family members who made great sacrifices for you. Intersperse your video with their photos. This is your chance to say thank you to all of them.
뷞f you have a close friend or family member who passed away, make him or her part of the occasion by inserting a small photo in your bouquet, or lighting a tribute candle at the church ceremony.
뷞f you have ethnic roots, incorporate a marriage ritual from your culture into your ceremony or perform it during your reception.
뷭ear an heirloom. For example, you can use your grandmother뭩 veil, or wear a locket that belongs to your mother. This is an excellent way of creating a sense of continuity between generations, celebrating your own family even as you go on to begin your own.
뷥repare an audio-video presentation that will be played during the last dance of the bride with the father. This can be just a simple montage of childhood photos. A guaranteed tear-jerker!
뷞f you have kids, help them feel like they뭨e part of the new family by asking them to stand next to you as you say your vows.
뷒dd little elements that say something about your relationship as a couple. For example, if you뭨e giving away picture frames, insert a poem that you wrote or a copy of your wedding vows. If you met at a beach (and would rather not have a beach-themed wedding) incorporate shells into your table centerpiece.

Add A Personal Flair With Wedding Favors To Any Wedding

Celebrating the unity of two people for eternity is the foremost purpose of a Wedding Ceremony. It has been this way and will continue to be this way for as long as the tradition lives. Wedding Guests are invited to share not only in the joyous occasion but also to bear witness to the union. There is something spiritual about standing before all those who are special to you and make a lifelong commitment to someone for others to hear, which is what really transforms two peopl…

Celebrating the unity of two people for eternity is the foremost purpose of a Wedding Ceremony. It has been this way and will continue to be this way for as long as the tradition lives. Wedding Guests are invited to share not only in the joyous occasion but also to bear witness to the union. There is something spiritual about standing before all those who are special to you and make a lifelong commitment to someone for others to hear, which is what really transforms two people into a married couple.

To show an appreciation for their guests, for the time they have taken out of their busy lives to be part of the Wedding, the bride and groom shower their guests with Wedding Favors. These Wedding Gifts or Wedding Favors have been the tradition to thank the wedding guests for their thoughtfulness, their gifts and help in any way given to the couple in making the wedding a special occasion.

Wedding favors traditionally are given to all of the guests that have been invited to the wedding reception, of course, more expensive wedding favors are available and there are many weddings for which these higher-priced wedding favors are appropriate, but . these are typically inexpensive gifts, averaging in the $1 – $2 price range. Numerous wedding favors are available in just about any category one could imagine, from sterling silver picture frames, to personalized edible chocolates, and even fragrant bath soaps.

Selecting wedding favors is not that difficult at all, nor is it necessary to purchase these well in advance of the wedding date. Most are readily available at online and retail outlets that specialize in these kind of wedding accessories. You don’t want to wait until the last minute however, as that is a particularly hectic time, and you will need to allow ample time for personalization, or if you select an item that requires special ordering, for example, an unusually large quantity, or an exclusive item. To be on the safe side, two to three months prior to the wedding date is a good time to make your wedding favor selections. Once you have them in your possession, the only other thing you need to worry about is getting them to the reception before the guests arrive and presenting them in a unique and beautiful manner appropriate for the occasion

Online shopping has made finding appropriate wedding favors very easy. Type ‘wedding favors’ into your search engine and you’ll get pages of web sites offering every type of wedding favor you could ever want. So where do you begin? It’s definitely a good idea to consult your budget worksheet first so you know the price range to focus on. From there, think about what makes you and your partner unique. Do you both love golf? Are you wine connoisseurs? What about a theme? If your wedding has one, there’s sure to be a favor to complement that theme. Do you want the favor to be the place holder? If so, select one that allows you to write the person’s name and table number. Creating your own wedding favors is another option and can end up being the most unique wedding favor of all and one that your guests are sure to treasure!

Wedding Favors most suited to the occasion are the ones that reflect your personal style and personality. So select something that you personally enjoy and that your guests will appreciate and remember your wedding and you for a long time to come.

ADD: Society Needs Hunters

At the dawn of time, there were two distinct types of people. Each of them was required and one was not more important than the other. The first group went out and gathered berries, fruits, nuts, and grains. for the tribe. The second group went out and hunted for meat. Both groups were crucial to the survival of society.

Yet, the skills needed to complete each task were different. Using sight and smell, taste, and touch, the gatherers went about searching for food that was…

At the dawn of time, there were two distinct types of people. Each of them was required and one was not more important than the other. The first group went out and gathered berries, fruits, nuts, and grains. for the tribe. The second group went out and hunted for meat. Both groups were crucial to the survival of society.

Yet, the skills needed to complete each task were different. Using sight and smell, taste, and touch, the gatherers went about searching for food that was there for the taking.

Once these gatherers learned to till the soil, they became farmers. No longer did they have to search for food. Then, they became tenders of the crops, assuring that there would be food for everyone, even when the hunters were unsuccessful.

Hunters were different. They had no patience for tending crops and so went off in search of the animals to kill. They used all their senses, especially those of sight, smell, and hearing. They were alert at all times and ready for action. If they weren’t constantly searching and wary, they would lose the meal or maybe be eaten by it.

How does this apply to modern times? Well, we still need hunters and we need farmers. The farmers are the linear folks. They support everything that goes on in our day-to-day life. They’re administrators and caretakers. ADD people are different. More like the hunters, we’re constantly looking for the next new thing. Though we’re quick and smart and are able to think on our feet, we aren’t finishers. We’re often people who create the systems.

We just aren’t tenders. We might set up the systems, but without linear thinking people to maintain them, there would be no society. It’s just vital that there are two types of people in the world. While people with attention deficit are labeled as such, it’s only because most of today’s society is based around jobs that require tending. But our ADD brains aren’t built that way!

If you’re in a linear job and are unhappy because of it, then find another job that suits your ADD brain. Not all jobs require that you sit still and follow instructions. Try something creative, like writing or artistry. Or become an entrepreneur, like I am. It’s perfectly suited to people with ADD. I’m able to create projects and with the help of the linear people on my team, see them through. It works out great!

ADD people are also problem solvers. So, find a job like being an electrician or even a CSI detective. Decide what works with your personality and your ADD. Think about what you’re excited about, and when your hyperfocus kicks in, decide what you were doing when that happened. Those are the areas where you should be looking for work.

Just forget the labels that society has place on us because ADD people aren’t very good at routines. We’re definitely every bit as important to the success of society as are linear-thinking people. If you have a linear job and aren’t satisfied, then find another job that works better with your ADD. Life can be sweet, when you find the spot that makes it that way.ADD, ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorderJust forget the labels that society has place on us because ADD people aren’t very good at routines. We’re definitely every bit as important to the success of society as are linear-thinking people. If you have a linear job and aren’t satisfied, then find another job that works better with your ADD. Life can be sweet, when you find the spot that makes it that way.